Modern Science is a group of scientific questions that aim to “reduce” or “purify” (again to the roots) all aspects of natural knowledge of society and nature. It is different from natural science, which is concerned only with matter and is unemotional; and theology and philosophies, which are concerned with God and are governed by faith. Modern Science is a broad term and covers many sciences, disciplines, and branches. Some of the branches it has contributed to are Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and Genetics.
The Scientific Method differs from other branches in that it is deductive. In other branches, observations and models are made and theories are formed. These theories are then tested or simply accepted as being true. But with the modern science method, hypotheses are tested or rejected, and then further testing is done until a hypothesis is accepted. Once this is done, the hypothesis is then accepted as factual.
Scientific Method of Modern Science
This is different than how religion works. In religion, a proposition is accepted as true after a specific number of centuries has passed, usually with the help of divine intervention. With the scientific method, you cannot test a theory, make an educated guess at its base, and then have it accepted as factual. If you do, your hypothesis will not be accepted, because it does not meet the scientific laws of the universe. Thus, in this type of scientific system, making any wrong hypothesis is unaccepted.
Modern science has also contributed greatly to the development of the entire human understanding of the world around us. It has reduced conflicts between people through a better understanding of the forces that cause conflict and has also increased the ability of groups to work together for a common cause. Without the scientific method of researching and debating ideas. We would not have fully understood why a particular group of individuals did something, or why another group did not. We would not have fully understood why, for example, a group of people waited for a bus to arrive, while another group chose to go on a hike. Through the scientific method, we have learned why these two groups did what they did, and why this, or that, happened, rather than just having some kind of superstitious belief that the bus was coming.
In scientific reasoning, there is generally a known or accepted explanation for a phenomenon, unless there is evidence to suggest otherwise. Then, a hypothesis is made based upon this known evidence. For example, if scientists believe that the earth orbits the sun. Then a hypothesis will be that the earth is slowly moving around the sun. If they find this hypothesis to be true, they will label it a “theory,” and explain away inconsistencies by saying that observation and calculations show that it is real. Science, as a whole, makes an educated guess as to real or unreal phenomena, but they call any theories that are based upon observations and calculations models or hypotheses.
Big Bang Theory
One example of a model in science is the Big Bang Theory. It is currently being taught in schools all across America. The theory states that the universe was created in a flash of radiation. This radiation left telltale signs in the form of voids, black holes, white holes, hot plasma, and various other phenomena. By observing these phenomena, scientists have been able to make an educated guess as to when the explosion occurred. This hypothesis is not a proven scientific fact and is therefore not considered a scientific theory, thus making it a hypothesis.
Laws of Physics
A more common example of a model in science is the laws of physics. Every law has exceptions and theories that support it. A new law could be completely wrong, or it could hold true under certain conditions. With observations and calculations, a scientist could make a hypothesis and put forward an explanation as to why the law was so accurate for so long. This hypothesis stands up to scrutiny by other scientists, until it is tested.
Modern science has found a way to combine observation and calculations with scientific principles. This process is known as a science; it is not pseudo-science. Pseudo-sciences are based on opinions, assumptions, and guesses. Modern science on the other hand is based on observation, calculations, and principles. Once science can explain how something happened, it can then be tested. Then a hypothesis can be tested and eventually proven or dismissed as the case may be.